Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions  over the Earth
Chapters

ACRE China

As   an   integral   part   of   WP1   within   the Climate   Science   for   Service   Partnership China, ACRE   China   is   tasked   to   recover, image   and   digitise   historical   daily   to   sub- daily   terrestrial   and   marine   data.      Data comes     from     stations     in     China     and surrounding   countries   and   from   the   log books   of   ships   in   the   region.      All   data   is stored      in      international      repositories, including   ICOADS,    ISTI ,   GPCC ,   and   the ISPD.    As   the   data   is   used   in   reanalyses systems   including   20CR,      ACRE   China scientists      conduct      verification      and applications reanalysis outputs. To date, digitisation work has included 1 . Sub-daily   surface   air   pressure   data of   6   stations   in   eastern   China   for   the periods before 1951 (submitted) 2 . Daily   records   of   surface   air   pressure, temperature   and   precipitation   of   19 stations   in   eastern   China   pre   1951 (submitted soon) 3 . Ancient     records     of     soil     moisture (Yuxuefencun)   for   6   stations   for   time periods 1730-1900 (to be submitted) 4 . Digitization   of   surface   air   pressure, temperature     and     precipitation     of Beijing   station   for   1757-1762,   and   it may   be   among   the   earliest   weather records of the world (underway) Planned    work    includes    high    resolution downscaling    of    20CR    output    over    the Chinese     region     via     the     Met     Office PRECIS      team.      This      would      vastly enhance   the   value   of   20CR   output   for the   Chinese   climate   science   community, plus    wide    ranging    climate    applications and    services,    policy    makers,    planners and environmental managers. Contact: Prof. Guoyu Ren, National Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing, China

ACRE Pacific

The   South   Western   Pacific   is   a   region that   is   critical   for   us   to   examine   if   we wish   to   understand   how   Earth’s   climate system    works.        We    can    expand    our knowledge   using   historical   climate   data.     New   visualization   tools   can   bring   these data   to   life.      The   extended   reanalysis without      radiosondes      effort      (ACRE- facilitated      20th      Century      Reanalysis Project     [20CR])     allows     huge     data integrations   that   no   one   else   can   do   by themselves.        It    gives    everyone    global context       for       local       conditions       via circulation   reconstructions   (past   climate and   weather)   to   pair   with   in   situ   station data,     shipboard     measurements,     and traditional   knowledge.      The   veracity   of the    20CR    reconstruction    is    dependent on   the   temporal   and   spatial   density   of observations.      We   need   to   contribute   by providing    more    data    to   ACRE    Pacific.      We    have    continued    funding    of    ACRE Pacific    via    the    New    Zealand    National Institute     of     Water     and     Atmospheric Research Ltd (NIWA) for the future. Contact: Dr Drew Lorrey, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Auckland, New Zealand

ACRE Antarctica

Critical    past    weather    observations    are being     rescued     for     the     purpose     of extending         Southern         Hemisphere coverage   within   global   reanalyses   as   far back   as   possible   into   the   1800s.   Primary work      consists      of      identifying      data resources,   digital   scanning,   keying   data, quality         control,         and         archiving observations   at   NIWA.   The   augmented reanalyses   will   be   used   to   (i)   investigate poorly     understood     aspects     of     New Zealand   regional   climate   that   are   linked to   high-latitude   atmospheric   and   oceanic dynamics,    (ii)    examine    daily    synoptic type   trends,   and   (iii)   establish   a   baseline more     representative     of     pre-industrial conditions    against    which    current    and future    climate    can    be    compared.    The synoptic   type   classification   completed   in (ii)    is    being    binned    into    multi-decadal intervals    according    to    phases    of    the Interdecadal          Pacific          Oscillation. Rescued   data   are   being   archived   and made     publicly     available     through     the International           Surface           Pressure Databank    and    NIWA's    database.    The initiative     is     funded     under     the     New Zealand   Deep   South   National   Science Challenge  . Contact: Dr Drew Lorrey, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Auckland, New Zealand

ACRE Canada

The DRAW Data Rescue: Archives and Research  The     DRAW     (is     an     interdisciplinary project,     which     aims     to     retrieve     the information    contained    in    the    Montreal based    McGill    Observatory’s    historical weather    records    for    use    in    scientific research. Because     the     weather     logbooks     are handwritten,       they       need       to       be transcribed       manually       into       online databases     before     being     used.     The DRAW    team    is    calling    on    volunteers across   the   world   to   help   transcribe   the tens   of   thousands   of   pages   of   weather observations   captured   over   the   last   150 years. The    project’s    value    is    two-fold.    The weather    data    contained    in    the    McGill logbooks    has    the    unique    capacity    to improve        our        understanding        of Montreal’s        climate        and        history. Simultaneously,   the   knowledge   gained through    the    process    of    transforming historical     information     from     a     paper format   to   a   digital   one   is   invaluable   due to   its   potential   for   application   in   other historical contexts. Contact: Dr Vicky Slonosky School of Information Studies McGill University, Montreal, Quebec

US Colonial Era Data Study

Exploring    Connections    between    the Past and Today The   Colonial   Era   Data   Study   is   a   wide ranging      educational      based      climate change   research   project.   This   research combines       the       areas       of       history, mathematics/statistics,      earth      science, computer/data    visualization,    and    global communication. The   project   is   sponsored by     groups     such     as    ACRE     and     the American     Philosophical     Society     and utilizes   representatives   from   NOAA,   UK Hadley   Centre,   university   professor,   and a   museum   archivist.   It   is   one   of   many projects   sponsored   by   ACRE   to   recover, digitize,    and    analyze    historical    weather observations.       A    second    phase    of    the U.S.   CEDS   project   is   actively   expanding these   concepts   with   various   middle   and high    schools    in    a    hands-on    learning experience.       This       project       presents appealing   materials   for   the   development of   communication   skills   and   the   accrual of   important   world   knowledge.   Because of   this   topic’s   interdisciplinary   nature,   the project   can   also   be   particularly   effective in   various   language   arts   instruction,   both for mainstream and ELL students. Contact: Mr John Buchanan, Reinsurance at Insurance Services Office, a Verisk Company, New York, USA  

ACRE Meso-America

The    Meso-American    initiative    aims    to recover    historical    weather    observations across   countries   from   southern   Mexico to      Panama      including      Costa      Rica, Nicaragua,      Honduras,      El      Salvador, Guatemala and Belize. Contact: Dr Pablo Imbach, CATIE, CATIE 7170, Turrialba- Siquirres 30501 Turrialba , Cartago , Costa Rica  

ACRE Arctic

Millions     of     handwritten     weather     and ocean   observations   from   100   years   ago have    been    carefully    preserved    in    ship logbooks. They   contain   weather   and   sea ice     information     which     promises     an insight     into     the     historical     climactic conditions   in   the   Arctic.   The   Odweather citizen   science   program   transformed   the large    number    of    crucial        handwritten observations   into   digital   forms   that   can be        assimilated        by        sparse-input reanalysis   systems.      The   output   of   these systems        extends        our        baseline knowledge     of     the     Arctic’s     historical climate. The     Arctic     is     currently     experiencing rapid     loss     of     sea     ice     and     other environmental    changes.    It’s    imperative to   know   how   unusual   these   events   are and      whether      some      part      can      be explained   by   the   large   range   of   natural variability    that    is    characteristic    of    the climate    system    or    some    other    factor. Sorting   out   and   explaining   the   different regional   effects   that   play   out   in   the Arctic is   a   difficult   problem.   Greatly   assisting this    process,    the    detailed    perspective provided   by   the   logbook   data   after   it   is passed    through    a    reanalysis    system provides      the      baseline      information necessary   to   begin   to   make   these   kinds of distinctions. Contact: : Dr Kevin Wood, University of Washington, Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Oceans (JISAO), Seattle, USA

ACRE Southeast Asia

The   primary   goal   of   this   regional   foci   is to   build   both   capabilities   and   capacities within      Southeast      Asian      institutions, agencies    and    National    Meteorological Services      to      improve      and      extend historical   instrumental,   documentary   and paleo       databases       of       SE       Asian weather/climate.     The     databases     will contribute    to    the    generation    of    high- quality,   high-resolution   historical   weather reconstructions   (reanalyses).   These   new baselines   will   allow   scientists   and   policy makers    across    the    region    to    address weather/climate   extremes,   impacts   and risks   in   ways   and   over   time   spans   not previously possible. Activities of the project include 1 . Compiling    a    data    inventory    of    all known    data    for    the    region    -    from ACRE sources or our partners 2 . Awareness   raising    about   ACRE   and recovery activities. 3 . Taking     part     in     conferences     and workshops 4 . Developing    a    network    of    regional multi-disciplinary       and       academic contacts in humanities and sciences 5 . Research     into     extreme     weather: storms,     floods,     and     typhoons     in archival resources 6 . Working      on      projects      to      trace particular   extreme   weather   events,   or comparative histories of events Contact: Dr Fiona Wiliamson,  Research Fellow, Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore  

Indian Ocean Data Rescue

initiative (INDARE)

WMO   and   partner   organizations   promote the     initiation     and     implementation     of regional    and    sub-regional    climate    data initiatives       and       foster       collaborative approaches   to   work   on   climate   data   in an   end-to-end   approach,   including,   but not   limited   to,   the   recovery,   digitization, quality    control    and    homogenisation    of the      historical      climate      data.      Such initiatives         offer         also         excellent opportunities   to   use   best   practices   and tools     to     analyze     climate     data     and generate      additional      information      on climate    change    and    climate    risks    at national   scale   and   the   scale   of   the   region of    interest.        The    INdian    Ocean    DAta REscue       (INDARE)       initiative       was launched      at      the      first      international workshop    on    the    recovery    of    climate heritage     in     the     Indian     Ocean     rim countries      and      islands,      21-24     April Maputo,       Mozambique       2014.       The participants       consisted       of       several directors   of   National   Meteorological   and Hydrological   Services,   international   and regional   institutions   representatives,   and national       and       international       climate experts.    They    agreed    to    develop    an implementation     plan     of     the     INDARE initiative.        A    steering    committee    was established     in     consultation     with     the countries   to   finalize   the   implementation plan   and   develop   the   working   structure and    annual    work-plans.        The    steering committee       met       in       Geneva       (29 September     -     1     October     2014),     and adopted    the    implementation    plan    and developed       the       INDARE       working structure   and   work   plan   for   2014-2015. The     19-20     October     2015     Mauritius meeting   (19-20   October   2015)   adopted the 2015-2016 work plan. Contact: Mr Omar Baddour, Chief, Data Management Applications Division, World Meteorological Organisation (WMO), Geneva, Switzerland

ACRE South Africa

The    southern   African    initiative    aims    to recover   instrumental   climate   data   for   the African   sub-continent,   and   also   the   SW Indian   Ocean   region.   It   is   also   one   of three   Southern   Hemisphere   core   regions for    data    rescue    under    the    EU-funded Copernicus   C3S   Data   Rescue   Service. Given         the         important         historical replenishment    stations    at    the    Cape    of Good   Hope   and   others   in   Madagascar, Mauritius            etc,            meteorological observations   began   as   early   as   the   18th century   in   some   places,   but   usually   for only    brief    periods    of    time.    During    the course    of    the    19th    century,    colonial stations   were   established   across   much of   South   Africa,   and   so   too,   the   gradual introduction   of   meteorological   registers. A   further   valuable   source   of   information is   from   ship   log   books,   particularly   those docked    at    ports    for    longer    periods    of time.     ACRE   South Africa   aims   to   find   as yet   unknown   or   seemingly   ‘lost’   records and   have   these   digitized.   There   are   also many      known      records      that      require digitization.   Work   has   already   started   on some   of   these,   such   as   the   long   record kept      by      the      Royal      Astronomical Observatory   at   the   Cape   of   Good   Hope (now   SAAO),   which   started   in   the   mid- 1830s. Contact: Prof. Stefan Grab, School of Geography, Archaeology & Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa   

ACRE Japan

A   joint   network   of   Japanese   Universities and     Institutes     aims     to     expand     the understanding    of    climate    change    and variability   in   the   Asian   monsoon   region through   the   data   rescue   of   instrumental meteorological    observations    since    the 19th    century.    Digitized    meteorological data   have   been   provided   to   ISPD   (The International           Surface           Pressure Databank)      and      contributed      to      the improvement      of      the      20th      century reanalysis   dataset.   Japan   Climate   Data Project    (JCDP)    is    one    of    the    active programs   under   the ACRE-Japan. Target activities are: 1. Data   rescue   of   daily   rainfall   data   in Japan,    East,    Southeast    and    South Asian   countries   back   to   the   late   19th century        for        Asian        monsoon researches. 2 . Data   rescue   of   meteorological   data   in stations    since    the    1860s    and    ship logs   sailing   along   the   coastal   region of   East   and   Southeast Asia   since   the 1780s   including   the   tropical   cyclone tracks    since    the    1880s    for    tropical cyclone researches. 3 . Data        rescue        of        instrumental meteorological     data     observed     in Japan   by   lighthouses   and   individual personnel   before   the   official   weather station    were    operated    for    climate studies   in   the   19th   century.   That   of former     local     observatories     of     the current JMA since the 1880s. 4 . Data        rescue        of        upper        air observations       in       Japan,       East, Southeast   Asia    and    Western    North Pacific Islands since the 1920s. 5 . Data    rescue    of    civil    and    military meteorological      observations      and their   history   and   background   during World   War   II   including   their   historical perspective. 6 . Investigation     of     early     instrumental meteorological   observation   in   Japan deployed   by   foreign   visitors   since   the 18th century. Contact: Hisayuki Kubota Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University Sapporo, Japan

ACRE Chile

Chile,   a   long   and   narrow   ribbon   of   land, with   its   exceptional   natural   borders   of   the arid     Atacama     desert     to     the     north, extension    to    the    Antarctic    ice    in    the south,   the   Andes   mountain   range   to   the east   and   the   Pacific   Ocean   in   the   west, encapsulates   most   climatic   regimes   on Earth.   In   Chile,   more   than   in   any   other country,   meteorological   observations   are vital   to   the   whole   spectrum   of   national and   international   interests.   Nevertheless, the    terrestrial    and    maritime    areas    of Chile   and   the   south-east   Pacific   are   one of   the   least   represented   areas   in   terms of historical weather and climate data. Supported       by       formal       agreements between    ACRE    and    agencies    of    the Chilean    Government,    a    first    step    has been      completed      to      catalogue      the repositories      of      meteorological      and oceanographic   data.   They   cover   the   full scope    from    across    the    offices    of    the national         archives,         the         naval, oceanographic        and        meteorological services,   and   include   lighthouse   records and   British   and   Spanish   logbooks.   There is   a   vast   and   necessary   task   for   ACRE Chile   to   address   the   recovery,   imaging and    digitisation    of    it    historical    weather and   climate   records,   as   part   of   a   wider data rescue initiative in South America. Contact: Mariela Vásquez Guzmán
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ACRE    Australia  

ACRE       Australia        brings        together scientists,   historians   and   volunteers   from across   Australia   working   in   data   rescue and   historical   climatology.   Data   have   so far   been   rescued   through   several   citizen science       and       research       initiatives, including      Weather      Detective ,      South Eastern      Australian      Recent      Climate History     ( SEARCH ),     Team     Todd ,     and Team     Belfield ,     with     more     currently underway. ACRE   Australia   aims   to   be   a   focal   point for     interdisciplinary     discussions     and projects   on   rescuing   historical   weather, climate   and   environmental   data   across the   country   and   its   nearby   seas.   We   are also   aiming   for   close   collaboration   with neighbouring      ACRE      Chapters      and relevant           environmental           history organisations,    to    promote    a    stronger community in the region. For   more   information   on   current   projects and     data     sources,     visit     the     ACRE Australia projects list. Contact:   Dr.   Linden   Ashcroft ,   Australian Bureau of Meteorology  

ACRE Oceans

About    70%    of    the    Earth’s    surface    is covered   by   oceans.      Oceans   and   their interaction   with   the   atmosphere   and   with land   masses   are   critical   to   understanding the   climate   system.      Sea   temperatures are   used   to   set   boundary   conditions   for atmospheric     reanalyses.          The     most severe      weather      systems,      typhoons, cyclones   and   hurricanes   are   generated over the oceans. ACRE-Oceans      links      other      terrestrial ACRE   foci,   as   well   as   being   a   focus   of activity    in    its    own    right.       All    the    other ACRE      regional      foci      have      maritime borders.  Descriptive   marine   weather   observations can   be   found   as   far   back   as   the   16th century,    instrumental    observations    from the   18th   century.      State   archives   contain records    of    their    naval    forces,    including many    logbooks.        Commercial    shipping records    are    also    rich    source    of    data.      From    the    19th    century    meteorological services,   and   scientific   institutions   began the          systematic          collection          of meteorological,        oceanographic        and glaciological     observations.         All     these records   are   sources   of   historical   surface synoptic    pressure    and    wind    data,    the latter     now     also     a     variable     to     be assimilated     into     reanalyses.          Many records also contain sea-ice data There   is   far   more   data   in   state   archives, museums    and    academic    and    scientific institutions,    than    in    current    digital    data depositories,     and     more     sources     are being     discovered     every     year.          Most recently   Norwegian   and   Finnish   archives have    been    mined    for    Southern    Ocean data,    and    as    a    result    other    significant sources   have   been   found   in   archives   in both         countries         and         throughout Scandinavia. ACRE-OCEANS   in   conjunction   with   the NOAA   linked   RECovery   of   Logbooks   and International     Marine     data     (RECLAIM) Project,   identifies   sources   of   marine   data (usually   with   a   regional   data   focus   such as   the   Southern   Ocean   or   Asia/Pacific), and    arranges    for    the    records    to    be imaged   and   catalogued   as   the   first   stage towards       making       the       observations available    for    scientific    study.        ACRE- OCEANS   works   closely   with   OldWeather and   Weather   Detective,   digitising   marine weather   observations   via   citizen   science projects linked to ACRE. Contact:      Clive      Wilkinson ,      Research Associate,      Climatic      Research      Unit, University   of   East Anglia,   Norwich   United Kingdom.
ACRE Worldwide This graphic shows the global reach of ACRE Chapters, Conferences and linked data  projects working on the retreival, digtisation and analysis of historical weather observations. CLICK the image to download a larger version.
ACRE   is   now   linked   closely   with   the   new 4-year   EU   Copernicus-funded   C3S   DRS , which   brings   together   the   Met   Office   and 13      other      subcontracted      partners      to provide    international    leadership    in    the fields     of     terrestrial     and     marine     data rescue.   Building   upon   existing   WMO   and international    data    rescue    activities    and standards    and    interlinked    closely    with ACRE,     the     Service     will     construct     a managed,       integrated,       state-of-the-art repository      (portal      and      registry)      of information     about     past,     current     and planned     data     rescue     projects.     It     will establish       well-defined       and       quality- controlled      procedures      for      registering current     and/or     planned     data     rescue activities       and       provide       access       to information        about        data        variables, metadata,   data   images ,   digitisation   status
and       data       quality       associated       with registered     activities.     This     will     include consolidating    paper    archives    through    to imaging     data     formatting     and     quality control   plus   visualisation   of   outputs   and products,   whilst   piloting   the   use   of   new tools,   techniques   and   approaches   in   data digitisation.   It   will   also   track   and   update this    information    for,    and    provide    new terrestrial    and    marine    observations    to, C3S     via     the     Copernicus     Data     Store (CDS).   The    C3S    DRS    has    funding    support    for data   rescue   activities   and   the   testing   of new   data   rescue   tools   and   procedures   in three    new/evolving   ACRE    regional    data rescue       regions       in       the       Southern Hemisphere   centring   on   Argentina,   South Africa    and    the    higher    latitude    Pacific
sector    of    the   Antarctic    continent,    which interlink    with    the    new    ACRE    Australia regional focus.   Although   the   Service   partners   have   strong links   to,   or   are   members   of,   various   WMO Expert   and   Task   Teams,   and   are   thus   in   a unique   position   to   bring   best   practices   to the     Service,     it     was     felt     that     Service activities    and    outputs    should    also    be assessed    in    an    ongoing    manner    by    an Advisory    Board    of    representatives    from WMO   Data   Rescue   and   Climate   Data,   the Joint   WMO-IOC Technical   Commission   for Oceanography    and    Marine    Meteorology (JCOMM)      and      the      Global      Climate Observing System (GCOS).

ACRE Argentina

The    Universidad    Tecnológica    Nacional (UTN),   Facultad   Regional   Buenos   Aires, in   the   city   of   Buenos Aires   will   coordinate data   rescue   activities   with   other   national organisations    such    as    Armada    de    la República    Argentina,    Prefectura    Naval Argentina,        Servicio        Meteorológico Nacional,     MinCyT     and     national     and provincial   archives.   Contacts   will   also   be sought   with   private   shipping   companies or    the    institutes    of    no    longer    existing companies      as      well      as      estancias, historical    ship    log    books    and    weather records.  Various actions will look at: Logbooks   from   Argentine   ships   and ‘stationary’ ships in port Observations from lighthouses Digitisation        of        Buenos        Aires observations       from       the       1820s onwards Gaps   in   DWD   old   German   colonial observations     between     1903     and 1930 Observations       from       old       railway companies Argentine       Daily       Weather       Reports (DWRs)   from   1902-1980,   which   are   held by   the   Met   Office Archives   in   the   UK,   not only   contain   daily   observations   of   many ECVs     for     Argentina     (e.g.     pressure, temperature,     winds,     relative     humidity and   precipitation)   but   also   contain   similar records   for   neighbouring   countries,   and are   being   scanned   and   digitised   in   order to     improve     historical     weather     data coverage   across Argentina   and   the   wider South American sphere. Research   activities   looking   into   climate variability   and   climate   processes   will   be carried     out     both     with     the     recovered datasets      and      with      derived      historic reanalysis   products   to   characterize   the evolution    of    the    climate    system    in    the region. . Contact: Dr Pablo Canziani, Unidad de Investigación y Desarrollo de las Ingenierías, Facultad Regional Buenos Aires, Universidad Tecnológica Nacional, Argentina